Introduction: Hypertesion is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, worldwide, and its prevalence has been increasing in several countries, including Italy. Aims: To assess hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in a real-world sample of adults with self-reported diabetes compared with nondiabetic individuals. Methods: Following the 2018 World Hypertension Day, a nationwide, cross-sectional epidemiological survey on cardiovascular risk factors ("Abbasso la Pressione!") in 3956 Italian pharmacies enrolled 47217 self-presenting volunteers (≥ 18 years). Participants underwent standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements and answered a questionnaire on cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits. Questions included if they had an established diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension or were on a BP medication. Hypertension prevalence was defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg. A double definition for hypertension control based on the recent European and US guidelines on hypertension was applied. Results: Diabetic individuals (N = 5695, 12%) had higher rates of hypertension prevalence (80% vs. 54.7%, p < 0.001), awareness (85.6% vs 77.3%, p < 0.001) and treatment (85.8% vs. 76.7%, p < 0.001), but lower hypertension control rates (36.1% vs. 39.6% according to the 2018 European guidelines, p < 0.001; 25.4% vs 30.8% according to the 2017 US guidelines, p < 0.001) than nondiabetics. Diabetic participants tended to be older, sedentary, overweight/obese, dyslipidemic men, with higher 10-years cardiovascular risk than nondiabetics (p < 0.001). Uncontrolled hypertension was associated with male gender, diabetes, body mass index, unhealthy lifestyle habits, and older age. Conclusions: Elevated hypertension awareness and treatment rates in diabetic adults do not translate into adequate BP control in the real world. Concomitant unfavorable metabolic features and unhealthy lifestyle habits might contribute to this observation.

Real-World Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Adult Diabetic Individuals: An Italian Nationwide Epidemiological Survey

De Feo, Martina;Del Pinto, Rita;Grassi, Davide;Ferri, Claudio
2021

Abstract

Introduction: Hypertesion is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, worldwide, and its prevalence has been increasing in several countries, including Italy. Aims: To assess hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in a real-world sample of adults with self-reported diabetes compared with nondiabetic individuals. Methods: Following the 2018 World Hypertension Day, a nationwide, cross-sectional epidemiological survey on cardiovascular risk factors ("Abbasso la Pressione!") in 3956 Italian pharmacies enrolled 47217 self-presenting volunteers (≥ 18 years). Participants underwent standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements and answered a questionnaire on cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits. Questions included if they had an established diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension or were on a BP medication. Hypertension prevalence was defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg. A double definition for hypertension control based on the recent European and US guidelines on hypertension was applied. Results: Diabetic individuals (N = 5695, 12%) had higher rates of hypertension prevalence (80% vs. 54.7%, p < 0.001), awareness (85.6% vs 77.3%, p < 0.001) and treatment (85.8% vs. 76.7%, p < 0.001), but lower hypertension control rates (36.1% vs. 39.6% according to the 2018 European guidelines, p < 0.001; 25.4% vs 30.8% according to the 2017 US guidelines, p < 0.001) than nondiabetics. Diabetic participants tended to be older, sedentary, overweight/obese, dyslipidemic men, with higher 10-years cardiovascular risk than nondiabetics (p < 0.001). Uncontrolled hypertension was associated with male gender, diabetes, body mass index, unhealthy lifestyle habits, and older age. Conclusions: Elevated hypertension awareness and treatment rates in diabetic adults do not translate into adequate BP control in the real world. Concomitant unfavorable metabolic features and unhealthy lifestyle habits might contribute to this observation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/188180
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