Inflammation and oxidative stress are interlinked and interdependent processes involved in many chronic diseases, including neurodegeneration, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Therefore, targeting inflammatory pathways may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. Emerging evidence indicates that many phytochemicals extracted from edible plants have the potential to ameliorate the disease phenotypes. In this scenario, ß-caryophyllene (BCP), a bicyclic sesquiterpene, and carnosic acid (CA), an ortho-diphenolic diterpene, were demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, as well as neuroprotective and mitoprotective effects in different in vitro and in vivo models. BCP essentially promotes its effects by acting as a selective agonist and allosteric modulator of cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R). CA is a pro-electrophilic compound that, in response to oxidation, is converted to its electrophilic form. This can interact and activate the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE transcription pathway, triggering the synthesis of endogenous antioxidant “phase 2” enzymes. However, given the nature of its chemical structure, CA also exhibits direct antioxidant effects. BCP and CA can readily cross the BBB and accumulate in brain regions, giving rise to neuroprotective effects by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting activated microglia, substantially through the activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, including regulation of apoptosis and autophagy, and molecular mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control. Findings from different in vitro/in vivo experimental models of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease reported the beneficial effects of both compounds, suggesting that their use in treatments may be a promising strategy in the management of neurodegenerative diseases aimed at maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and ameliorating glia-mediated neuroinflammation.

Multi-Target Effects of ß-Caryophyllene and Carnosic Acid at the Crossroads of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration: From Oxidative Stress to Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation

Iorio, Roberto
;
Celenza, Giuseppe;Petricca, Sabrina
2022

Abstract

Inflammation and oxidative stress are interlinked and interdependent processes involved in many chronic diseases, including neurodegeneration, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Therefore, targeting inflammatory pathways may represent a potential therapeutic strategy. Emerging evidence indicates that many phytochemicals extracted from edible plants have the potential to ameliorate the disease phenotypes. In this scenario, ß-caryophyllene (BCP), a bicyclic sesquiterpene, and carnosic acid (CA), an ortho-diphenolic diterpene, were demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, as well as neuroprotective and mitoprotective effects in different in vitro and in vivo models. BCP essentially promotes its effects by acting as a selective agonist and allosteric modulator of cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R). CA is a pro-electrophilic compound that, in response to oxidation, is converted to its electrophilic form. This can interact and activate the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE transcription pathway, triggering the synthesis of endogenous antioxidant “phase 2” enzymes. However, given the nature of its chemical structure, CA also exhibits direct antioxidant effects. BCP and CA can readily cross the BBB and accumulate in brain regions, giving rise to neuroprotective effects by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting activated microglia, substantially through the activation of pro-survival signalling pathways, including regulation of apoptosis and autophagy, and molecular mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control. Findings from different in vitro/in vivo experimental models of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease reported the beneficial effects of both compounds, suggesting that their use in treatments may be a promising strategy in the management of neurodegenerative diseases aimed at maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and ameliorating glia-mediated neuroinflammation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/189152
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