Indole-decorated glycine derivatives are prepared through an environmentally benign cross-dehydrogenative coupling between N-aryl glycine analogues and indoles (yield of ≤81%). Merging heterogeneous organocatalysis and photocatalysis, C-H functionalization has been achieved by selective C-2 oxidation of N-aryl glycines to afford the electrophilic imine followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylation with indole. The sustainability of the process has been taken into account in the reaction design through the implementation of a metal-free recyclable heterogeneous photocatalyst and a green reaction medium. Scale-up of the benchmark reaction (gram scale, yield of 69%) and recycling experiments (over seven runs without a loss of efficiency) have been performed to prove the robustness of the protocol. Finally, mechanistic studies were conducted employing electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to unveil the roles of the photocatalyst and oxygen in the formation of odd-electron species.

Photoredox Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling of N-Aryl Glycines Mediated by Mesoporous Graphitic Carbon Nitride: An Environmentally Friendly Approach to the Synthesis of Non-Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids (NPAAs) Decorated with Indoles

Pesciaioli, Fabio;
2022

Abstract

Indole-decorated glycine derivatives are prepared through an environmentally benign cross-dehydrogenative coupling between N-aryl glycine analogues and indoles (yield of ≤81%). Merging heterogeneous organocatalysis and photocatalysis, C-H functionalization has been achieved by selective C-2 oxidation of N-aryl glycines to afford the electrophilic imine followed by Friedel-Crafts alkylation with indole. The sustainability of the process has been taken into account in the reaction design through the implementation of a metal-free recyclable heterogeneous photocatalyst and a green reaction medium. Scale-up of the benchmark reaction (gram scale, yield of 69%) and recycling experiments (over seven runs without a loss of efficiency) have been performed to prove the robustness of the protocol. Finally, mechanistic studies were conducted employing electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to unveil the roles of the photocatalyst and oxygen in the formation of odd-electron species.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/190360
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