The diagnosis of melanoma and breast cancer may impact many aspects of life with significant reductions in emotional functioning and quality of life. The aim of the study was to analyze the emotional traits of female patients with oncological in early-stage diagnosis, investigating predictors for psychological distress and analyzing body image perception. An observational study was conducted, A sample of 84 female cancer patients (age range 30–55 years) with melanoma (n = 42) and breast cancer diagnosis (n = 42). The examined emotional variables were psychological distress; depression, stress, and anxiety; metacognitions; and body self-perception. Findings showed higher psychological distress in breast cancer than in melanoma patients (p = 0.00), which was related to lower positive self-perception of body image (p = 0.03). Furthermore, psychological distress was negatively correlated with consequences of clinical treatment on body image, and low well-being affected the social interaction and well-being with own body. There was no significant difference between cancer staging and timing from diagnosis. Prevention and therapeutic psychological protocols might be adapted and tailored to the unmet needs of the patients in medical treatments to promote and enhance the Quality of Life in survivorship
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