Gait analysis is clinically relevant in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and consists of several joint angular displacement-time relationships and spatiotemporal parameters. However, it lacks representation by means of diagrams in which knee-angle/hip-angle and knee-angle/ankle-angle variations are plotted against each other at the same points of time. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis was performed on 20 subjects (10 PwMS/10 healthy controls, HCs), and the knee-angle/hip-angle and knee-angle/ankle-angle diagrams of both lower limbs were determined in the sagittal plane while walking on a motorized treadmill. The area (a quantifier of range of motion) and the perimeter (a quantifier of coordination) of angle-angle diagram loops were calculated. PwMS showed reduced knee-angle/ankle-angle loops compared to HCs (p < 0.05), whereas the hip-angle/ankle-angle loops between the PwMS and HCs was not significant (p > 0.05). Similarly, the activation of leg muscles showed significant differences between PwMS and HCs (p ranged from 0.05 to 0.001). The results indicate that the proposed knee-angle/hip-angle diagram is feasible and could be applied as a reliable tool in future studies aimed at assessing the acute and long-term effects of specific exercise programmes and/or pharmacological treatment in PwMS.
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