The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES-01) provides in situ electron density (Ne) observations through Langmuir probes (LPs) in the topside ionosphere since February 2018. CSES-01 is a sun-synchronous satellite probing the ionosphere around two fixed local times (LTs), 14 LT in the daytime sector and 02 LT in the night-time sector, at an altitude of about 500 km. Previous studies evidenced that CSES-01 seems to underestimate Ne measurements with respect to those acquired by similar satellites or obtained from different instruments. To overcome this issue, we calibrated CSES-01 LP Ne observations through Swarm B satellite data, which flies approximately at CSES-01 altitude. As a first step, Swarm B LP Ne observations were calibrated through Faceplate (FP) Ne observations from the same satellite. Such calibration allowed solving the Ne overestimation made by Swarm LP during nighttime for low solar activity. Then, the calibrated Swarm B LP Ne observations were used to calibrate CSES-01 Ne observations on a statistical basis. Finally, the goodness of the proposed calibration procedure was statistically assessed through a comparison with Ne observations by incoherent scatter radars (ISRs) located at Jicamarca, Arecibo, and Millstone Hill. The proposed calibration procedure allowed solving the CSES-01 Ne underestimation issue for both daytime and nighttime sectors and brought CSES-01 Ne observations in agreement with corresponding ones measured by Swarm B, ISRs, and with those modelled by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). This is a first fundamental step towards a possible future inclusion of CSES-01 Ne observations in the dataset underlying IRI for the purpose of improving the description of the topside ionosphere made by IRI.
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