Background Hypoparathyroidism (HypoP) is a rare endocrine condition characterized by hypocalcaemia and hyperphos- phatemia, as a consequence of absent or improperly low parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Patients affected by HypoP have a clinical condition often characterized by paresthesias and muscle spasms, as well as long-term consequences as nephro- lithiasis, extraskeletal calcification, and fractures. In the literature, likely due to these symptoms, few data exist regarding the appropriate physical activity (PA) in subjects suffering from HypoP. Purpose This review evaluates the literature on exercise-based approaches to the management of individuals affected by HypoP and evaluates: (1) the effects of physical exercise on muscle cramps and other clinical symptoms; (2) the effects of exercise on PTH and calcium level; (3) the most suitable clinical exercise testing; and (4) the most suitable exercise combination. Methods and results A systematic search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, Google Scholar using “hypopar- athyroidism AND Physical Activity”, “Training AND hypoparathyroidism”, “Exercise AND muscle cramps”, “Exercise AND Fatigue” as keywords. In addition, references list from the included articles were searched and cross-checked to identify any further potentially eligible studies. A total of 50 manuscripts were found among which 39 manuscripts were selected. A few clinical studies have been performed in HypoP patients to evaluate PA training protocols. Conclusion Although further research is needed to draw solid conclusions regarding best PA protocols in subjects affected by HypoP, a PA protocol has been proposed within the manuscript to encourage patients to attempt exercise to improve their clinical conditions and their quality of life.
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