Lung cancer has a high morbidity and mortality rate, and affected patients have a poor prognosis and low survival. The therapeutic approaches for lung cancer treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, are not completely effective, due to late diagnosis. Although the identification of genetic drivers has contributed to the improvement of lung cancer clinical management, the discovery of new diagnostic and prognostic tools remains a critical issue. Liquid biopsy (LB) represents a minimally invasive approach and practical alternative source to investigate tumor-derived alterations and to facilitate the selection of targeted therapies. LB allows for the testing of different analytes such as circulating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (EVs), tumor-educated platelets, and cell-free nucleic acids including DNAs, RNAs, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Several regulatory factors control the key cellular oncogenic pathways involved in cancers. ncRNAs have a wide range of regulatory effects in lung cancers. This review focuses on emerging regulatory ncRNAs, freely circulating in body fluids or shuttled by EVs, such as circular-RNAs, small nucleolar-RNAs, small nuclear-RNAs, and piwi-RNAs, as new biomarkers for early detection, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic strategy of lung cancer treatment.
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