Objective To investigate endogenous testosterone density (ETD) predicting disease progression from clinically localized impalpable prostate cancer (PCa) presenting with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels elevated up to 10 ng/mL and treated with radical prostatectomy. Materials and methods In a period ranging from November 2014 to December 2019, 805 consecutive PCa patients who were not under androgen blockade had endogenous testosterone (ET, ng/dL) measured before surgery. ETD was evaluated as the ratio of ET on prostate volume (PV). Unfavorable disease was defined as including ISUP >= 3 and/or seminal vesicle invasion in the surgical specimen. The risk of disease progression was evaluated by statistical methods. Results Overall, the study selected 433 patients, of whom 353 (81.5%) had available follow-up. Unfavorable disease occurred in 46.7% of cases and was predicted by tumor quantitation features that were positively associated with ETD. Disease progression, which occurred for 46 (13%) cases, was independently predicted only by ETD (hazard ratio, HR = 1.037; 95% CI 1.004-1.072; p = 0.030) after adjusting for unfavorable disease. According to a multivariate model, ETD above the third quartile was confirmed to be an independent predictor for PCa progression (HR = 2.479; 95% CI 1.355-4.534; p = 0.003) after adjusting for unfavorable disease. The same ETD measurements, ET mean levels were significantly lower in progressing cancers. Conclusions In this particular subset of patients, increased ETD with low ET levels, indicating androgen independence, resulted in a more aggressive disease with poorer prognosis.
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