The architecture of eukaryotic cells is defined by extensive membrane-delimited compartments, which entails separate metabolic processes that would otherwise interfere with each other, leading to functional differences between cells. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of cell surface receptors, and their signal transduction is traditionally viewed as a chain of events initiated from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, their intracellular trafficking, internalization, and recycling were considered only to regulate receptor desensitization and cell surface expression. On the contrary, accumulating data strongly suggest that GPCRs also signal from intracellular compartments. GPCRs localize in the membranes of endosomes, nucleus, Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum apparatuses, mitochondria, and cell division compartments. Importantly, from these sites they have shown to orchestrate multiple signals that regulate different cell pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of this fascinating phenomenon, explaining how GPCRs reach the intracellular sites, are stimulated by the endogenous ligands, and their potential physiological/pathophysiological roles. Finally, we illustrate several mechanisms involved in the modulation of the compartmentalized GPCR signaling by drugs and endogenous ligands. Understanding how GPCR signaling compartmentalization is regulated will provide a unique opportunity to develop novel pharmaceutical approaches to target GPCRs and potentially lead the way towards new therapeutic approaches.

GPCRs in Intracellular Compartments: New Targets for Drug Discovery

Fasciani, Irene
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Carli, Marco
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Petragnano, Francesco
Data Curation
;
Colaianni, Francesco
Data Curation
;
Aloisi, Gabriella
Data Curation
;
Maggio, Roberto
Conceptualization
;
Rossi, Mario
Conceptualization
2022-01-01

Abstract

The architecture of eukaryotic cells is defined by extensive membrane-delimited compartments, which entails separate metabolic processes that would otherwise interfere with each other, leading to functional differences between cells. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of cell surface receptors, and their signal transduction is traditionally viewed as a chain of events initiated from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, their intracellular trafficking, internalization, and recycling were considered only to regulate receptor desensitization and cell surface expression. On the contrary, accumulating data strongly suggest that GPCRs also signal from intracellular compartments. GPCRs localize in the membranes of endosomes, nucleus, Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum apparatuses, mitochondria, and cell division compartments. Importantly, from these sites they have shown to orchestrate multiple signals that regulate different cell pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of this fascinating phenomenon, explaining how GPCRs reach the intracellular sites, are stimulated by the endogenous ligands, and their potential physiological/pathophysiological roles. Finally, we illustrate several mechanisms involved in the modulation of the compartmentalized GPCR signaling by drugs and endogenous ligands. Understanding how GPCR signaling compartmentalization is regulated will provide a unique opportunity to develop novel pharmaceutical approaches to target GPCRs and potentially lead the way towards new therapeutic approaches.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/195247
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact