On 3 November 2021, an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impacted the Earth's magnetosphere leading to a relevant geomagnetic storm (Kp = 8-), the most intense event that occurred so far during the rising phase of solar cycle 25. This work presents the state of the solar wind before and during the geomagnetic storm, as well as the response of the plasmasphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system in the European sector. To investigate the longitudinal differences, the ionosphere-thermosphere response of the American sector was also analyzed. The plasmasphere dynamics was investigated through field line resonances detected at the European quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array, while the ionosphere was investigated through the combined use of ionospheric parameters (mainly the critical frequency of the F2 layer, foF2) from ionosondes and Total Electron Content (TEC) obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System receivers at four locations in the European sector, and at three locations in the American one. An original method was used to retrieve aeronomic parameters from observed electron concentration in the ionospheric F region. During the analyzed interval, the plasmasphere, originally in a state of saturation, was eroded up to two Earth's radii, and only partially recovered after the main phase of the storm. The possible formation of a drainage plume is also observed. We observed variations in the ionospheric parameters with negative and positive phase and reported longitudinal and latitudinal dependence of storm features in the European sector. The relative behavior between foF2 and TEC data is also discussed in order to speculate about the possible role of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere response at the investigated European site. The American sector analysis revealed negative storm signatures in electron concentration at the F2 region. Neutral composition and temperature changes are shown to be the main reason for the observed decrease of electron concentration in the American sector.

Space weather effects observed in the northern hemisphere during November 2021 geomagnetic storm: the impacts on plasmasphere, ionosphere and thermosphere systems

Regi, M
;
Del Corpo, A;Carnevale, G;De Lauretis, M;Francia, P;Redaelli, G;
2022-01-01

Abstract

On 3 November 2021, an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impacted the Earth's magnetosphere leading to a relevant geomagnetic storm (Kp = 8-), the most intense event that occurred so far during the rising phase of solar cycle 25. This work presents the state of the solar wind before and during the geomagnetic storm, as well as the response of the plasmasphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system in the European sector. To investigate the longitudinal differences, the ionosphere-thermosphere response of the American sector was also analyzed. The plasmasphere dynamics was investigated through field line resonances detected at the European quasi-Meridional Magnetometer Array, while the ionosphere was investigated through the combined use of ionospheric parameters (mainly the critical frequency of the F2 layer, foF2) from ionosondes and Total Electron Content (TEC) obtained from Global Navigation Satellite System receivers at four locations in the European sector, and at three locations in the American one. An original method was used to retrieve aeronomic parameters from observed electron concentration in the ionospheric F region. During the analyzed interval, the plasmasphere, originally in a state of saturation, was eroded up to two Earth's radii, and only partially recovered after the main phase of the storm. The possible formation of a drainage plume is also observed. We observed variations in the ionospheric parameters with negative and positive phase and reported longitudinal and latitudinal dependence of storm features in the European sector. The relative behavior between foF2 and TEC data is also discussed in order to speculate about the possible role of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere response at the investigated European site. The American sector analysis revealed negative storm signatures in electron concentration at the F2 region. Neutral composition and temperature changes are shown to be the main reason for the observed decrease of electron concentration in the American sector.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/197755
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