Although liposomes are largely investigated as drug delivery systems, they can also exert a pharmacological activity if devoid of an active principle as a function of their composition. Specifically, charged liposomes can electrostatically interact with bacterial cells and, in some cases, induce bacterial cell death. Moreover, they also show a high affinity toward bacterial biofilms. We investigated the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of liposomes formulated with a natural phospholipid and four synthetic L-prolinol-derived surfactants at 9/1 and 8/2 molar ratios. The synthetic components differ in the nature of the polar headgroup (quaternary ammonium salt or N-oxide) and/or the length of the alkyl chain (14 or 16 methylenes). These differences allowed us to investigate the effect of the molecular structure of liposome components on the properties of the aggregates and their ability to interact with bacterial cells. The antimicrobial properties of the different formulations were assessed against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Drug-drug interactions with four classes of available clinical antibiotics were evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. The target of each class of antibiotics plays a pivotal role in exerting a synergistic effect. Our results highlight that the liposomal formulations with an N-oxide moiety are required for the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, we observed a synergism between oxacillin and liposomes containing 20 molar percentage of N-oxide surfactants on Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. In the case of liposomes containing 20 molar percentage of the N-oxide surfactant with 14 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain for S. epidermidis, the minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.125 mu g/mL, well below the breakpoint value of the antibiotic.

Structurally Related Liposomes Containing N-Oxide Surfactants: Physicochemical Properties and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity in Combination with Therapeutically Available Antibiotics

Battista, Sara;Bellio, Pierangelo;Fagnani, Lorenza;Allegritti, Elena;Nazzicone, Lisaurora;Celenza, Giuseppe
;
Giansanti, Luisa
2022-01-01

Abstract

Although liposomes are largely investigated as drug delivery systems, they can also exert a pharmacological activity if devoid of an active principle as a function of their composition. Specifically, charged liposomes can electrostatically interact with bacterial cells and, in some cases, induce bacterial cell death. Moreover, they also show a high affinity toward bacterial biofilms. We investigated the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of liposomes formulated with a natural phospholipid and four synthetic L-prolinol-derived surfactants at 9/1 and 8/2 molar ratios. The synthetic components differ in the nature of the polar headgroup (quaternary ammonium salt or N-oxide) and/or the length of the alkyl chain (14 or 16 methylenes). These differences allowed us to investigate the effect of the molecular structure of liposome components on the properties of the aggregates and their ability to interact with bacterial cells. The antimicrobial properties of the different formulations were assessed against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Drug-drug interactions with four classes of available clinical antibiotics were evaluated against Staphylococcus spp. The target of each class of antibiotics plays a pivotal role in exerting a synergistic effect. Our results highlight that the liposomal formulations with an N-oxide moiety are required for the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, we observed a synergism between oxacillin and liposomes containing 20 molar percentage of N-oxide surfactants on Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. In the case of liposomes containing 20 molar percentage of the N-oxide surfactant with 14 carbon atoms in the alkyl chain for S. epidermidis, the minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.125 mu g/mL, well below the breakpoint value of the antibiotic.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/198229
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