The efficacy of the treatment of bacterial infection is seriously reduced because of antibiotic resistance; thus, therapeutic solutions against drug-resistant microbes are necessary. Nano-particle-based solutions are particularly promising for meeting this challenge because they can offer intrinsic antimicrobial activity and sustained drug release at the target site. Herein, we present a newly developed nanovesicle system of the quatsome family, composed of L-prolinol-derived surfactants and cholesterol, which has noticeable antibacterial activity even on Gram-negative strains, demonstrating great potential for the treatment of bacterial infections. We optimized the vesicle stability and antibacterial activity by tuning the surfactant chain length and headgroup charge (cationic or zwitterionic) and show that these quatsomes can furthermore serve as nanocarriers of pharmaceutical actives, demonstrated here by the encapsulation of (+)-usnic acid, a natural substance with many pharmacological properties.
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