Background Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) parameters are not standardized, especially in men of reproductive age. Hence, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) promoted a multicenter study to assess the TRUS characteristics of healthy-fertile men (HFM) to establish normative parameters. Objectives To report and discuss the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) reference ranges and characteristics in HFM and their associations with clinical, seminal, biochemical parameters. Methods 188 men (35.6 +/- 6.0 years) from a cohort of 248 HFM were studied, evaluating, on the same day, clinical, biochemical, seminal, TRUS parameters following Standard Operating Procedures. Results TRUS reference ranges and characteristics of the prostate and SV of HFM are reported herein. The mean PV was similar to 25 ml. PV lower and upper limits were 15 and 35 ml, defining prostate hypotrophy and enlargement, respectively. PV was positively associated with age, waistline, current smoking (but not with T levels), seminal volume (and negatively with seminal pH), prostate inhomogeneity, macrocalcifications, calcification size and prostate arterial parameters, SV volume before and after ejaculation, deferential and epididymal size. Prostate calcifications and inhomogeneity were frequent, while midline prostatic cysts were rare and small. Ejaculatory duct abnormalities were absent. Periprostatic venous plexus size was positively associated with prostate calcifications, SV volume and arterial peak systolic velocity. Lower and upper limits of SV anterior-posterior diameter after ejaculation were 6 and 16 mm, defining SV hypotrophy or dilation, respectively. SV total volume before ejaculation and delta SV total volume (DSTV) positively correlated with ejaculate volume, and DSTV correlated positively with sperm progressive motility. SV total volume after ejaculation was associated negatively with SV ejection fraction and positively with distal ampullas size. SV US abnormalities were rare. No association between TRUS and time to pregnancy, number of children or history of miscarriage was observed. Conclusions The present findings will help in better understanding male infertility pathophysiology and the meaning of specific TRUS findings.

The European Academy of Andrology (EAA) ultrasound study on healthy, fertile men: Prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound reference ranges and associations with clinical, seminal and biochemical characteristics

Barbonetti, Arcangelo;Francavilla, Felice;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) parameters are not standardized, especially in men of reproductive age. Hence, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) promoted a multicenter study to assess the TRUS characteristics of healthy-fertile men (HFM) to establish normative parameters. Objectives To report and discuss the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) reference ranges and characteristics in HFM and their associations with clinical, seminal, biochemical parameters. Methods 188 men (35.6 +/- 6.0 years) from a cohort of 248 HFM were studied, evaluating, on the same day, clinical, biochemical, seminal, TRUS parameters following Standard Operating Procedures. Results TRUS reference ranges and characteristics of the prostate and SV of HFM are reported herein. The mean PV was similar to 25 ml. PV lower and upper limits were 15 and 35 ml, defining prostate hypotrophy and enlargement, respectively. PV was positively associated with age, waistline, current smoking (but not with T levels), seminal volume (and negatively with seminal pH), prostate inhomogeneity, macrocalcifications, calcification size and prostate arterial parameters, SV volume before and after ejaculation, deferential and epididymal size. Prostate calcifications and inhomogeneity were frequent, while midline prostatic cysts were rare and small. Ejaculatory duct abnormalities were absent. Periprostatic venous plexus size was positively associated with prostate calcifications, SV volume and arterial peak systolic velocity. Lower and upper limits of SV anterior-posterior diameter after ejaculation were 6 and 16 mm, defining SV hypotrophy or dilation, respectively. SV total volume before ejaculation and delta SV total volume (DSTV) positively correlated with ejaculate volume, and DSTV correlated positively with sperm progressive motility. SV total volume after ejaculation was associated negatively with SV ejection fraction and positively with distal ampullas size. SV US abnormalities were rare. No association between TRUS and time to pregnancy, number of children or history of miscarriage was observed. Conclusions The present findings will help in better understanding male infertility pathophysiology and the meaning of specific TRUS findings.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/198601
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