: An important field of research is devoted to the development of innovative, sustainable, and safe methodologies to counteract biodeterioration of stone monuments due to the growth of microbial communities. However, besides the biocide's efficacy, it is crucial to consider the features of substrates on which biocides must be applied, to define the so-called bioreceptivity of the lithic faces. In this research five different lithotypes, namely Lecce stone, Travertine, Peperino, Serena stone, and Granite, have been used as substrates for the growth of cyanobacterial biofilms. Open porosity, hygroscopic properties, and roughness parameters have been investigated for each lithotype and correlated to the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms colonizing the different stones to propose an easy method to estimate stone bioreceptivity. Different levels of coverage of the stone surfaces have been accomplished in relation to the typology of lithotypes. To develop innovative restoration methodologies against biodeterioration of stone monuments, a hydrogel-biocide system has been optimized by using a polysaccharide dispersion as a matrix where to embed T. vulgaris essential oil (at 0.25 % or 0.1 %) or its main component thymol (at 0.18 % or 0.07 %). The efficacy and the effect of the innovative biocide have been evaluated combining microscopy, photosynthetic measurements, and colorimetric analyses and both the biocides (with T. vulgaris EO or thymol) showed to be highly effective against the cyanobacterial biofilms for at least six months from the treatment without inducing any significant alteration to the lithic surfaces. The efficacy of thymol alone allows to treat colonized surfaces with a single active ingredient, or at least a mixture thereof, much cheaper and reproducible. The results obtained in this work pave the way to develop a sustainable cleaning protocol to counteract the biodeterioration of stone monuments or historic buildings induced by the presence of phototrophic biofilms that endangered their conservation.

Biodeterioration of stone monuments: Studies on the influence of bioreceptivity on cyanobacterial biofilm growth and on the biocidal efficacy of essential oils in natural hydrogel

Gabriele, Francesco;Casieri, Cinzia;Spreti, Nicoletta
2023-01-01

Abstract

: An important field of research is devoted to the development of innovative, sustainable, and safe methodologies to counteract biodeterioration of stone monuments due to the growth of microbial communities. However, besides the biocide's efficacy, it is crucial to consider the features of substrates on which biocides must be applied, to define the so-called bioreceptivity of the lithic faces. In this research five different lithotypes, namely Lecce stone, Travertine, Peperino, Serena stone, and Granite, have been used as substrates for the growth of cyanobacterial biofilms. Open porosity, hygroscopic properties, and roughness parameters have been investigated for each lithotype and correlated to the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms colonizing the different stones to propose an easy method to estimate stone bioreceptivity. Different levels of coverage of the stone surfaces have been accomplished in relation to the typology of lithotypes. To develop innovative restoration methodologies against biodeterioration of stone monuments, a hydrogel-biocide system has been optimized by using a polysaccharide dispersion as a matrix where to embed T. vulgaris essential oil (at 0.25 % or 0.1 %) or its main component thymol (at 0.18 % or 0.07 %). The efficacy and the effect of the innovative biocide have been evaluated combining microscopy, photosynthetic measurements, and colorimetric analyses and both the biocides (with T. vulgaris EO or thymol) showed to be highly effective against the cyanobacterial biofilms for at least six months from the treatment without inducing any significant alteration to the lithic surfaces. The efficacy of thymol alone allows to treat colonized surfaces with a single active ingredient, or at least a mixture thereof, much cheaper and reproducible. The results obtained in this work pave the way to develop a sustainable cleaning protocol to counteract the biodeterioration of stone monuments or historic buildings induced by the presence of phototrophic biofilms that endangered their conservation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/199922
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