Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain insulin resistance greatly contributes to AD development in the general population and previous studies from our group showed an early accumulation of insulin resistance markers in DS brain, already in childhood, and even before AD onset. Here we tested the effects promoted in Ts2Cje mice by the intranasal administration of the KYCCSRK peptide known to foster insulin signaling activation by directly interacting and activating the insulin receptor (IR) and the AKT protein. Therefore, the KYCCSRK peptide might represent a promising molecule to overcome insulin resistance. Our results show that KYCCSRK rescued insulin signaling activation, increased mitochondrial complexes levels (OXPHOS) and reduced oxidative stress levels in the brain of Ts2Cje mice. Moreover, we uncovered novel characteristics of the KYCCSRK peptide, including its efficacy in reducing DYRK1A (triplicated in DS) and BACE1 protein levels, which resulted in reduced AD-like neuropathology in Ts2Cje mice. Finally, the peptide elicited neuroprotective effects by ameliorating synaptic plasticity mechanisms that are altered in DS due to the imbalance between inhibitory vs. excitatory currents. Overall, our results represent a step forward in searching for new molecules useful to reduce intellectual disability and counteract AD development in DS.

Intranasal administration of KYCCSRK peptide rescues brain insulin signaling activation and reduces Alzheimer’s disease-like neuropathology in a mouse model for Down syndrome

Pierangelo Cifelli;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and is strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain insulin resistance greatly contributes to AD development in the general population and previous studies from our group showed an early accumulation of insulin resistance markers in DS brain, already in childhood, and even before AD onset. Here we tested the effects promoted in Ts2Cje mice by the intranasal administration of the KYCCSRK peptide known to foster insulin signaling activation by directly interacting and activating the insulin receptor (IR) and the AKT protein. Therefore, the KYCCSRK peptide might represent a promising molecule to overcome insulin resistance. Our results show that KYCCSRK rescued insulin signaling activation, increased mitochondrial complexes levels (OXPHOS) and reduced oxidative stress levels in the brain of Ts2Cje mice. Moreover, we uncovered novel characteristics of the KYCCSRK peptide, including its efficacy in reducing DYRK1A (triplicated in DS) and BACE1 protein levels, which resulted in reduced AD-like neuropathology in Ts2Cje mice. Finally, the peptide elicited neuroprotective effects by ameliorating synaptic plasticity mechanisms that are altered in DS due to the imbalance between inhibitory vs. excitatory currents. Overall, our results represent a step forward in searching for new molecules useful to reduce intellectual disability and counteract AD development in DS.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/202790
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