Simple Summary This review aims to provide an outline of the potential use of plant-based foods, nutraceuticals, and derived micronutrients-particularly those typically found in the Mediterranean diet-as anticancer agents, with a focus on their mechanism of action as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) by inactivating the CDK 4/6 pathway and the regulation of the cell-cycle cascade. We discuss the preclinical and pharmacological significance of some already approved CDK blockers as a promising therapeutic approach against breast and ovarian cancers. Overweight and obesity constitute the most impactful lifestyle-dependent risk factors for cancer and have been tightly linked to a higher number of tumor-related deaths nowadays. The excessive accumulation of energy can lead to an imbalance in the level of essential cellular biomolecules that may result in inflammation and cell-cycle dysregulation. Nutritional strategies and phytochemicals are gaining interest in the management of obesity-related cancers, with several ongoing and completed clinical studies that support their effectiveness. At the same time, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are becoming an important target in breast and ovarian cancer treatment, with various FDA-approved CDK4/6 inhibitors that have recently received more attention for their potential role in diet-induced obesity (DIO). Here we provide an overview of the most recent studies involving nutraceuticals and other dietary strategies affecting cell-cycle pathways, which might impact the management of breast and ovarian cancers, as well as the repurposing of already commercialized chemotherapeutic options to treat DIO.
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