We tested the hypothesis that the levels of bone remodeling mediators may be altered in Praderâ Willi syndrome (PWS). We assessed RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK-1 serum levels, and bone metabolism markers in 12 PWS children (7.8 Â± 4.3 years), 14 PWS adults (29.5 Â± 7.2 years), and 31 healthy controls matched for sex and age. Instrumental parameters of bone mineral density (BMD) were also evaluated. Lumbar spine BMD Z-scores were reduced in PWS children (P < 0.01), reaching osteopenic levels in PWS adults. PWS patients showed lower 25(OH)-vitamin D serum levels than controls (P < 0.001). Osteocalcin was increased in PWS children but reduced in adults respect to controls (P < 0.005 and P < 0.01, respectively). RANKL levels were higher in both pediatric and PWS adults than controls (P < 0.004), while OPG levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.004 and P < 0.006, respectively). Sclerostin levels were increased in children (P < 0.04) but reduced in adults compared to controls (P < 0.01). DKK-1 levels did not show significant difference between patients and controls. In PWS patients, RANKL, OPG, and sclerostin significantly correlated with metabolic and bone instrumental parameters. Consistently, with adjustment for age, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMD and osteocalcin were the most important predictors for RANKL, OPG, and sclerostin in children, and GH and sex steroid replacement treatment in PWS adults. We demonstrated the involvement of RANKL, OPG, and sclerostin in the altered bone turnover of PWS subjects suggesting these molecules as markers of bone disease and new potential pharmacological targets to improve bone health in PWS.
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