Background: In recent years, the attention of the scientific world has focused on a clearance system of brain waste metabolites, called the glymphatic system, based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in peripheral tissue and the relevant role of the AQP4 glial channels and described for the first time in 2012. Consequently, numerous studies focused on its role in organ damage in cases of neuropathologies, including TBI. Methods: To evaluate the role that the glymphatic system has in the pathogenesis of TBI, on 23 March 2022, a systematic review of the literature according to PRISMA guidelines was carried out using the SCOPUS and Medline (via PubMed) databases, resulting in 12 articles after the selection process. Discussion and conclusion: The present review demonstrated that an alteration of AQP4 is associated with the accumulation of substances S100b, GFAP, and NSE, known markers of TBI in the forensic field. In addition, the alteration of the functionality of AQP4 favors edema, which, as already described, constitutes alterations of secondary brain injuries. Moreover, specific areas of the brain were demonstrated to be prone to alterations of the glymphatic pathway, suggesting their involvement in post-TBI damage. Therefore, further studies are mandatory. In this regard, a study protocol on cadavers is also proposed, based on the analyzed evidence.

Glymphatic System a Window on TBI Pathophysiology: A Systematic Review

La Russa, Raffaele;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: In recent years, the attention of the scientific world has focused on a clearance system of brain waste metabolites, called the glymphatic system, based on its similarity to the lymphatic system in peripheral tissue and the relevant role of the AQP4 glial channels and described for the first time in 2012. Consequently, numerous studies focused on its role in organ damage in cases of neuropathologies, including TBI. Methods: To evaluate the role that the glymphatic system has in the pathogenesis of TBI, on 23 March 2022, a systematic review of the literature according to PRISMA guidelines was carried out using the SCOPUS and Medline (via PubMed) databases, resulting in 12 articles after the selection process. Discussion and conclusion: The present review demonstrated that an alteration of AQP4 is associated with the accumulation of substances S100b, GFAP, and NSE, known markers of TBI in the forensic field. In addition, the alteration of the functionality of AQP4 favors edema, which, as already described, constitutes alterations of secondary brain injuries. Moreover, specific areas of the brain were demonstrated to be prone to alterations of the glymphatic pathway, suggesting their involvement in post-TBI damage. Therefore, further studies are mandatory. In this regard, a study protocol on cadavers is also proposed, based on the analyzed evidence.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/216404
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