Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their beneficial effects, differentiation capacity and regenerative potential. Dental-derived MSCs (DSCs) are more easily accessible and have a non-invasive isolation method rather than MSCs isolated from other sources (umbilical cord, bone marrow, and adipose tissue). In addition, DSCs appear to have a relevant neuro-regenerative potential due to their neural crest origin. However, it is now known that the beneficial effects of MSCs depend, at least in part, on their secretome, referring to all the bioactive molecules (neurotrophic factors) released in the conditioned medium (CM) or in the extracellular vesicles (EVs) in particular exosomes (Exos). In this review, we described the similarities and differences between various DSCs. Our focus was on the secretome of DSCs and their applications in cell therapy for neurological disorders. For neuro-regenerative purposes, the secretome of different DSCs has been tested. Among these, the secretome of dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth have been the most widely studied. Both CM and Exos obtained from DSCs have been shown to promote neurite outgrowth and neuroprotective effects as well as their combination with scaffold materials (to improve their functional integration in the tissue). For these reasons, the secretome obtained from DSCs in combination with scaffold materials may represent a promising tissue engineering approach for neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative treatments.
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