Introduction: The X-chromosomal USP9X gene encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme involved in protein turnover and TGF-beta signaling during fetal and neuronal development. USP9X variants in females are primarily associated with complete loss-of-function (LOF) alleles, leading to neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability, as well as a wide range of congenital anomalies. In contrast, USP9X missense variants in males often result in partial rather than complete LOF, specifically affecting neuronal migration and development. USP9X variants in males are associated with intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, global developmental delay, speech delay, and structural CNS defects. Facial dysmorphisms are found in almost all patients. Case Presentation: We report the case of an Italian boy presenting dysmorphism, intellectual disability, structural brain anomalies, and congenital heart disease. Using next-generation sequencing analysis, we identified a hemizygous de novo variant in the USP9X gene (c.5470A>G, p.Met1824Val) that was never reported in the literature. Conclusion: We provide an overview of the available literature on USP9X variants in males, in order to further expand the genotypic and phenotypic landscape of male-restricted X-linked mental retardation syndrome. Our findings confirm the involvement of USP9X variants in neuronal development and corroborate the possible association between the novel USP9X variant and congenital heart malformation.

Novel Variant in the USP9X Gene Is Associated with Congenital Heart Disease in a Male Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

Delvecchio, Maurizio;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: The X-chromosomal USP9X gene encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme involved in protein turnover and TGF-beta signaling during fetal and neuronal development. USP9X variants in females are primarily associated with complete loss-of-function (LOF) alleles, leading to neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability, as well as a wide range of congenital anomalies. In contrast, USP9X missense variants in males often result in partial rather than complete LOF, specifically affecting neuronal migration and development. USP9X variants in males are associated with intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, global developmental delay, speech delay, and structural CNS defects. Facial dysmorphisms are found in almost all patients. Case Presentation: We report the case of an Italian boy presenting dysmorphism, intellectual disability, structural brain anomalies, and congenital heart disease. Using next-generation sequencing analysis, we identified a hemizygous de novo variant in the USP9X gene (c.5470A>G, p.Met1824Val) that was never reported in the literature. Conclusion: We provide an overview of the available literature on USP9X variants in males, in order to further expand the genotypic and phenotypic landscape of male-restricted X-linked mental retardation syndrome. Our findings confirm the involvement of USP9X variants in neuronal development and corroborate the possible association between the novel USP9X variant and congenital heart malformation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/220867
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