Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections in developed countries because is capable of infecting the fetus after both primary and recurrent maternal infection, and because the virus may be spread for years through infected children. Moreover, CMV is the most serious congenital infection associated with severe neurological and sensorineural sequelae, which can occur at birth or develop later on. Hygienic measures can prevent CMV transmission, which mainly involve contact with children under 3 years of age and attending a nursery or daycare. In animal and human pregnancies, many observational and controlled studies have shown that CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin (HIG) is safe and can significantly decrease maternal-fetal transmission of CMV infection and, mostly, the occurrence of CMV disease. Recently, valaciclovir at the dosage of 8 g/day was also reported to be capable of decreasing the rates of congenital infection and disease. However, comparing the results of our two recent case series, the infants born to women treated with HIG showed significantly lower rates of CMV DNA positivity in urine (9.7% vs. 75.0%; p < 0.0001) and abnormalities after follow-up (0.0% vs. 41.7%; p < 0.0001). The implementation of CMV screening would enable primary prevention via hygiene counseling, improve the understanding and awareness of congenital CMV infection, and increase the knowledge of the potential efficacy of preventive or therapeutic HIG or antiviral administration.

Prevention of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Review and Case Series of Valaciclovir versus Hyperimmune Globulin Therapy

Nigro, Giovanni
;
Muselli, Mario;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infections in developed countries because is capable of infecting the fetus after both primary and recurrent maternal infection, and because the virus may be spread for years through infected children. Moreover, CMV is the most serious congenital infection associated with severe neurological and sensorineural sequelae, which can occur at birth or develop later on. Hygienic measures can prevent CMV transmission, which mainly involve contact with children under 3 years of age and attending a nursery or daycare. In animal and human pregnancies, many observational and controlled studies have shown that CMV-specific hyperimmune globulin (HIG) is safe and can significantly decrease maternal-fetal transmission of CMV infection and, mostly, the occurrence of CMV disease. Recently, valaciclovir at the dosage of 8 g/day was also reported to be capable of decreasing the rates of congenital infection and disease. However, comparing the results of our two recent case series, the infants born to women treated with HIG showed significantly lower rates of CMV DNA positivity in urine (9.7% vs. 75.0%; p < 0.0001) and abnormalities after follow-up (0.0% vs. 41.7%; p < 0.0001). The implementation of CMV screening would enable primary prevention via hygiene counseling, improve the understanding and awareness of congenital CMV infection, and increase the knowledge of the potential efficacy of preventive or therapeutic HIG or antiviral administration.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/222026
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