Introduction: Prolactinomas are the most frequent type of pituitary adenoma encountered in clinical practice. Dopamine agonists (DA) like cabergoline typically provide sign/ symptom control, normalize prolactin levels and decrease tumor size in most patients. DA-resistant prolactinomas are infrequent and can occur in association with some genetic causes like MEN1 and pathogenic germline variants in the AIP gene (AIPvar).Methods: We compared the clinical, radiological, and therapeutic characteristics of AIPvar-related prolactinomas (n=13) with unselected hospital-treated prolactinomas ("unselected", n=41) and genetically-negative, DA-resistant prolactinomas (DA-resistant, n=39).Results: AIPvar-related prolactinomas occurred at a significantly younger age than the unselected or DA-resistant prolactinomas (p<0.01). Males were more common in the AIPvar (75.0%) and DA- resistant (49.7%) versus unselected prolactinomas (9.8%; p<0.001). AIPvar prolactinomas exhibited significantly more frequent invasion than the other groups (p<0.001) and exhibited a trend to larger tumor diameter. The DA-resistant group had significantly higher prolactin levels at diagnosis than the AIPvar group (p<0.001). Maximum DA doses were significantly higher in the AIPvar and DA-resistant groups versus unselected. DA-induced macroadenoma shrinkage (>50%) occurred in 58.3% in the AIPvar group versus 4.2% in the DA-resistant group (p<0.01). Surgery was more frequent in the AIPvar and DA- resistant groups (43.8% and 61.5%, respectively) versus unselected (19.5%: p<0.01). Radiotherapy was used only in AIPvar (18.8%) and DA-resistant (25.6%) groups.Discussion: AIPvar confer an aggressive phenotype in prolactinomas, with invasive tumors occurring at a younger age. These characteristics can help differentiate rare AIPvar related prolactinomas from DA-resistant, genetically-negative tumors.

The clinical and therapeutic profiles of prolactinomas associated with germline pathogenic variants in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene

Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Prolactinomas are the most frequent type of pituitary adenoma encountered in clinical practice. Dopamine agonists (DA) like cabergoline typically provide sign/ symptom control, normalize prolactin levels and decrease tumor size in most patients. DA-resistant prolactinomas are infrequent and can occur in association with some genetic causes like MEN1 and pathogenic germline variants in the AIP gene (AIPvar).Methods: We compared the clinical, radiological, and therapeutic characteristics of AIPvar-related prolactinomas (n=13) with unselected hospital-treated prolactinomas ("unselected", n=41) and genetically-negative, DA-resistant prolactinomas (DA-resistant, n=39).Results: AIPvar-related prolactinomas occurred at a significantly younger age than the unselected or DA-resistant prolactinomas (p<0.01). Males were more common in the AIPvar (75.0%) and DA- resistant (49.7%) versus unselected prolactinomas (9.8%; p<0.001). AIPvar prolactinomas exhibited significantly more frequent invasion than the other groups (p<0.001) and exhibited a trend to larger tumor diameter. The DA-resistant group had significantly higher prolactin levels at diagnosis than the AIPvar group (p<0.001). Maximum DA doses were significantly higher in the AIPvar and DA-resistant groups versus unselected. DA-induced macroadenoma shrinkage (>50%) occurred in 58.3% in the AIPvar group versus 4.2% in the DA-resistant group (p<0.01). Surgery was more frequent in the AIPvar and DA- resistant groups (43.8% and 61.5%, respectively) versus unselected (19.5%: p<0.01). Radiotherapy was used only in AIPvar (18.8%) and DA-resistant (25.6%) groups.Discussion: AIPvar confer an aggressive phenotype in prolactinomas, with invasive tumors occurring at a younger age. These characteristics can help differentiate rare AIPvar related prolactinomas from DA-resistant, genetically-negative tumors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/222261
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