The recent advent of two-dimensional (2D) materials has had a ground-breaking impact on science and technology. To exploit in technology their unique thickness-dependent physicochemical properties, the large-scale production of 2D materials is mandatory, but it represents an open challenge still due to various pitfalls and severe limitations including the toxicity of state-of-the-art solvents. Thus, liquid-phase exfoliation based on green and bioderived solvents represents an ideal methodology for massive production. This is particularly crucial for introducing 2D materials in technological applications such as the production of drinking water and agri-food industrial processes. Here, we assessed the production of 2D nanosheets (specifically, graphene, WS2, MoS2) with liquid-phase exfoliation assisted by eco-friendly solvents, with a comparative evaluation of green solvents in terms of the yield and, moreover, the aspect ratio, defectivity, and crystalline quality of the produced nanosheets. In particular, we focus on the most promising green solvents in terms of the yield and the crystalline quality of the produced nanosheets: Polarclean, Iris, and Cyrene, which were compared with acetone/water mixtures, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), triethanolamine (TEA), aqueous solutions of urea, and an ethanol/water mixture as well as two toxic solvents largely used for the production of 2D nanosheets: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Remarkably, the density of defects was particularly low in the liquid-phase exfoliation with Polarclean, as indicated by the Raman spectrum of graphene, with the I(D)/I(G) ratio below 0.1. Furthermore, Polarclean and Iris also enable ink-jet printing with functional inks of 2D materials based on green solvents due to their low dynamic viscosity at room temperature. © 2023 by the authors.

The Quest for Green Solvents for the Sustainable Production of Nanosheets of Two-Dimensional (2D) Materials, a Key Issue in the Roadmap for the Ecology Transition in the Flatland

Occhiuzzi, J.
Investigation
;
Politano, A.
Supervision
2023-01-01

Abstract

The recent advent of two-dimensional (2D) materials has had a ground-breaking impact on science and technology. To exploit in technology their unique thickness-dependent physicochemical properties, the large-scale production of 2D materials is mandatory, but it represents an open challenge still due to various pitfalls and severe limitations including the toxicity of state-of-the-art solvents. Thus, liquid-phase exfoliation based on green and bioderived solvents represents an ideal methodology for massive production. This is particularly crucial for introducing 2D materials in technological applications such as the production of drinking water and agri-food industrial processes. Here, we assessed the production of 2D nanosheets (specifically, graphene, WS2, MoS2) with liquid-phase exfoliation assisted by eco-friendly solvents, with a comparative evaluation of green solvents in terms of the yield and, moreover, the aspect ratio, defectivity, and crystalline quality of the produced nanosheets. In particular, we focus on the most promising green solvents in terms of the yield and the crystalline quality of the produced nanosheets: Polarclean, Iris, and Cyrene, which were compared with acetone/water mixtures, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), triethanolamine (TEA), aqueous solutions of urea, and an ethanol/water mixture as well as two toxic solvents largely used for the production of 2D nanosheets: N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Remarkably, the density of defects was particularly low in the liquid-phase exfoliation with Polarclean, as indicated by the Raman spectrum of graphene, with the I(D)/I(G) ratio below 0.1. Furthermore, Polarclean and Iris also enable ink-jet printing with functional inks of 2D materials based on green solvents due to their low dynamic viscosity at room temperature. © 2023 by the authors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/223399
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