Background: A large body of evidence has established a tight relation between traumatic experiences (TEs) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Nevertheless, more comprehensive models involving multiple interactions of serial or parallel mediations and moderations still need to be elucidated. Among the many potential mediators or moderators, insecure attachment and resilience play a key role in the association of stress with PLEs. Hence, we aim to explore the complex pathways that lead from different types of TEs to PLEs, involving attachment and resilience modeled as mediators or moderators.Methods: One thousand ten high school students completed the International Trauma Exposure Measure (ITEM), the 11-item Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA-11), the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (iPQ-16), and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ). A path analysis was conducted to assess mediation and moderation. Results: The final model showed that the impact of childhood TEs on PLEs was mediated by a pathway through anxious-insecure attachment styles (i.e., fearful and preoccupied, respectively, 8.75 % and 8.53 % of the total effect) and personal resilience resources. Conversely, the avoidant-insecure attachment was associated with lower interpersonal resilience (b = 0.14 [0.08, 0.20]), which in turn moderated the impact of recent TEs on PLEs (interaction term b = 0.34 [0.21, 0.47]).Conclusions: Our model examines a complex model that includes factors buffering the effect of traumatic expe-riences on PLEs. Our results highlight the importance of insecure-anxious attachment to personal resilience re-sources and of insecure-avoidant attachment to interpersonal resilience as potential targets for clinical practice.

Attachment and resilience as mediators or moderators in the relationship between trauma and psychotic-like experiences

Ciocca, Giacomo;Socci, Valentina;Pacitti, Francesca;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: A large body of evidence has established a tight relation between traumatic experiences (TEs) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Nevertheless, more comprehensive models involving multiple interactions of serial or parallel mediations and moderations still need to be elucidated. Among the many potential mediators or moderators, insecure attachment and resilience play a key role in the association of stress with PLEs. Hence, we aim to explore the complex pathways that lead from different types of TEs to PLEs, involving attachment and resilience modeled as mediators or moderators.Methods: One thousand ten high school students completed the International Trauma Exposure Measure (ITEM), the 11-item Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA-11), the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire (iPQ-16), and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ). A path analysis was conducted to assess mediation and moderation. Results: The final model showed that the impact of childhood TEs on PLEs was mediated by a pathway through anxious-insecure attachment styles (i.e., fearful and preoccupied, respectively, 8.75 % and 8.53 % of the total effect) and personal resilience resources. Conversely, the avoidant-insecure attachment was associated with lower interpersonal resilience (b = 0.14 [0.08, 0.20]), which in turn moderated the impact of recent TEs on PLEs (interaction term b = 0.34 [0.21, 0.47]).Conclusions: Our model examines a complex model that includes factors buffering the effect of traumatic expe-riences on PLEs. Our results highlight the importance of insecure-anxious attachment to personal resilience re-sources and of insecure-avoidant attachment to interpersonal resilience as potential targets for clinical practice.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/225804
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