Space-related stressors such as microgravity are associated with cellular and molecular alterations of the immune and inflammatory homeostasis that have been linked to the disorders that astronauts suffer from during their missions. Most of the research of the past 30 years has consistently established that innate adaptive immune cells represent a target of microgravity, which leads to their defective or dysfunctional activation, as well as to an altered ability to produce soluble mediators-e.g., cytokines/chemokines and bioactive lipids-that altogether control tissue homeostasis. Bioactive lipids include a vast array of endogenous molecules of immune origin that control the induction, intensity and outcome of the inflammatory events. However, none of the papers published so far focus on a newly characterized class of lipid mediators called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), which orchestrate the "resolution of inflammation"-i.e., the active control and confinement of the inflammatory torrent mostly driven by eicosanoids. SPMs are emerging as crucial players in those processes that avoid acute inflammation to degenerate into a chronic event. Given that SPMs, along with their metabolism and signaling, are being increasingly linked to many inflammatory disorders, their study seems of the outmost importance in the research of pathological processes involved in space-related diseases, also with the perspective of developing therapeutic countermeasures. Here, we show that microgravity, simulated in the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) developed by NASA, rearranges SPM receptors both at the gene and protein level, in human monocytes but not in lymphocytes. Moreover, RCCS treatment reduces the biosynthesis of a prominent SPM like resolvin (Rv) D1. These findings strongly suggest that not only microgravity can impair the functioning of immune cells at the level of bioactive lipids directly involved in proper inflammation, but it does so in a cell-specific manner, possibly perturbing immune homeostasis with monocytes being primary targets.

Simulated Microgravity Affects Pro-Resolving Properties of Primary Human Monocytes

De Dominicis, Noemi;Sergi, Manuel;Maccarrone, Mauro
2024-01-01

Abstract

Space-related stressors such as microgravity are associated with cellular and molecular alterations of the immune and inflammatory homeostasis that have been linked to the disorders that astronauts suffer from during their missions. Most of the research of the past 30 years has consistently established that innate adaptive immune cells represent a target of microgravity, which leads to their defective or dysfunctional activation, as well as to an altered ability to produce soluble mediators-e.g., cytokines/chemokines and bioactive lipids-that altogether control tissue homeostasis. Bioactive lipids include a vast array of endogenous molecules of immune origin that control the induction, intensity and outcome of the inflammatory events. However, none of the papers published so far focus on a newly characterized class of lipid mediators called specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), which orchestrate the "resolution of inflammation"-i.e., the active control and confinement of the inflammatory torrent mostly driven by eicosanoids. SPMs are emerging as crucial players in those processes that avoid acute inflammation to degenerate into a chronic event. Given that SPMs, along with their metabolism and signaling, are being increasingly linked to many inflammatory disorders, their study seems of the outmost importance in the research of pathological processes involved in space-related diseases, also with the perspective of developing therapeutic countermeasures. Here, we show that microgravity, simulated in the rotary cell culture system (RCCS) developed by NASA, rearranges SPM receptors both at the gene and protein level, in human monocytes but not in lymphocytes. Moreover, RCCS treatment reduces the biosynthesis of a prominent SPM like resolvin (Rv) D1. These findings strongly suggest that not only microgravity can impair the functioning of immune cells at the level of bioactive lipids directly involved in proper inflammation, but it does so in a cell-specific manner, possibly perturbing immune homeostasis with monocytes being primary targets.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/234140
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