SOCIAL BUILDINGS IN THIRTIES AND FORTIES OF THE 20TH CENTURY CASE STUDIES IN ABRUZZO Between Thirties and Forties many social buildings were realized in Italy, according to an ethical and propagandist policy of modernization and new mass society creation, made by fascist government. Usually these buildings are related to initiatives of historical cities’ renewal; elsewhere, when isolated interventions, often they direct the urban development. The social buildings wanted to be new directional and service centers for community. It follows specific formal and typological issues. In particular social buildings had to be able to arrange many different activities, such as gyms and parade halls; libraries; cinemas; refectories; didactic, free-time, social and health assistance services rooms; bathrooms and showers, etc. last but not least political offices. The intellectual had strong controversy about the definition of the best and most functional architectural language to built and to represent the government. The debate focused on the role of the architecture in country reorganization; the relationship between “modernity” and “tradition” was essential, although interpreted in different ways, accordingly to the themes of “monumentality” and of "classic esprit”. In social buildings definition, the rule of the public bodies was very important. They assigned the tasks and developed standards, manuals and typologies. At the same time public bodies checked the projects according to functional and economical standards. In general this centralized contracting system not ever meant homologation. Rather the Balilla National Organization, especially under Moretti direction, proposed some of the most interesting examples of Italian rationalism. The same happened for the Fascist Houses, where the public competition favoured the experimentation. Practically the government didn’t express any preference about the architectonical buildings’ style: mainly it was interested in buildings’ ideological and social value. Also the aim of “monumentality” could be reached both with eclectic or rational architectonical language. About the constructive systems the theme of “tradition” combined with the one of “nationality” and “autarchy”. The autarchy also suggested the returning to traditional constructive technique, this aspect supported also by political and economic reasons. So masonries were the most diffused, many times coupled with concrete systems. The use of concrete and steel was essentials to realise floors larger than the traditional ones. Sometimes the structure was hidden into masonries, without correlation between structure and architectural language as in international rationalism. So techniques could be used independently by figurative settings. The local situation was similar to the national one: not only different styles and techniques, but often the same building presented complex influences. As in the whole country, in Abruzzo many buildings were realised. Architects, planning buildings in provincial region, free from constraints of greater representative context, enjoyed greater freedom, experimenting solutions of particular value. The buildings are expression of a transition period where the renewal is implemented in continuity.
|Titolo:||Architetture per il sociale negli anni Trenta e Quaranta del Novecento. Esperienze in Abruzzo|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||3.1 Monografia o trattato scientifico|