Aquatic ecosystems in protected areas help the preservation of biodiversity and play an important ecological role in the landscape due to their function as biological corridor and source of fauna recolonisation (Mancini et al., 2005). The assessment of environmental quality of these ecosystems is important for following reasons: 1) to investigate the real condition of water bodies in protected area: rarely parks were created to preserve the functionality of freshwater aquatic ecosystems; 2) it is required by Water Frame Directive (CEC, 2000); 3) protected area could be a good pilot area where apply restoration and management planes. The study area of this work is the Protected Area of Posta Fibreno lake: it was created in 1983, in order to preserve the floristic and faunistic biodiversity of this lake. It has karstic orgin that generated particularly environmental conditions (ie water temperature is 10° C is around 10°C throughout the year), that allow the life of different plant (Hippuris vulgaris) and animals (Salmoni fibreni) and the nidification of different birds (Fulica atra). The environmental quality was assessed by an integrated approach that included biological and microbiological indicators, supported water quality variables. Diatom were chosen as biological indicator: they are unicellular algae of Bacillariophyceae class and due to their sensitivity to eutrophication and organic pollution are one of the biological elements required by the Water frame Directive for ecological status the assessment (ie. Prygiel & Coste 1999). Furthermore as microbiological indicator were chosen Enterococci and E. coli: they are commonly used to detect faecal pollution (Berg, 1978, EU, 2006).
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