Background. The scientific literature over the past 30 years highlighted the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA) and guidelines translate those evidences into recommendations for different population groups. However, participating in PA, particularly in sports activities, also carries significant risks: biomechanical, cardiovascular, respiratory, behavioural (performance-enhancing drugs use), psychosocial (body image disorders and exercise addiction), and combinations of risks (female athlete triad). In these perspectives, sport clubs could play a strategic role in the prevention of exercise-associated risks and in a setting-based health promotion. Our study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence of physical and psychosocial health conditions and health-related behaviours in people attending sport-clubs. Methods. In 2013 and 2014, a cross-sectional survey has been carried out in six sport clubs, located in Central Italy, collecting data on 212 subjects 18-82 ys of age (49.1% males) by means of a self-report questionnaire including an Italian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) [1]. Results. Most athletes are involved in fitness activities (51.0%), followed by gymnastics (13.2%), martial arts (8.5 %), running and body building (6.6%). The proportion of people with overweight in the sample is lower than in general population, while the proportion of underweight is higher, particularly in females (7.6 vs 3.0%).. More than one third of the sample doesn’t have a correct perception of his/her body weight: women distort it significantly more than males towards excess weight (34.3 vs 9.0%) and less towards weight deficiency (3.9 vs 26.0%, p<0.001). Moreover 25.0% of women and 17.3 % of men are unsatisfied with their own body image. The smoking habits are less frequent than in general population (19.8 vs 28.0%), however the proportions of those drinking alcohol at least monthly are similar (53.8 vs 54.5%) [2]. Only 9.0% declare the use of performance-enhancing substances. Five people (2.5%) were ‘at-risk for exercise dependence’ and 21.4% were ‘physiologically dependent’ (i.e. evidence of tolerance or withdrawal), which is less than in other studies [3]. Unsurprisingly, dependent subjects spent more time (3 or more days/week) in exercising (79.5 vs 59.0%, p<0.05) than ‘non-dependents’, but the prevalences of other unhealthy behaviours or body image disorders are similar, so it could be a dependence related to the exercise ‘as an end in itself’ and not a consequence f.e. of eating disorders). Conclusion. The needs assessment is an essential action in health promoting sports clubs. References 1. Hausenblas HA & Symons Downs D. Exercise Dependence Scale-21 Manual. 2002. 2. Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Studio Passi. http://www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/ , accessed on June 22, 2014 3. Lejoyeux M, Avril M, Richoux C, Embouazza H, Nivoli F. Prevalence of exercise dependence and other behavioral addictions among clients of a Parisian fitness room Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2008; 49: 353–358.

Is the exercise practice always associated to health chances? Cross-sectional survey in Italian sport club attenders.

SCATIGNA, MARIA;
2014-01-01

Abstract

Background. The scientific literature over the past 30 years highlighted the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA) and guidelines translate those evidences into recommendations for different population groups. However, participating in PA, particularly in sports activities, also carries significant risks: biomechanical, cardiovascular, respiratory, behavioural (performance-enhancing drugs use), psychosocial (body image disorders and exercise addiction), and combinations of risks (female athlete triad). In these perspectives, sport clubs could play a strategic role in the prevention of exercise-associated risks and in a setting-based health promotion. Our study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence of physical and psychosocial health conditions and health-related behaviours in people attending sport-clubs. Methods. In 2013 and 2014, a cross-sectional survey has been carried out in six sport clubs, located in Central Italy, collecting data on 212 subjects 18-82 ys of age (49.1% males) by means of a self-report questionnaire including an Italian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) [1]. Results. Most athletes are involved in fitness activities (51.0%), followed by gymnastics (13.2%), martial arts (8.5 %), running and body building (6.6%). The proportion of people with overweight in the sample is lower than in general population, while the proportion of underweight is higher, particularly in females (7.6 vs 3.0%).. More than one third of the sample doesn’t have a correct perception of his/her body weight: women distort it significantly more than males towards excess weight (34.3 vs 9.0%) and less towards weight deficiency (3.9 vs 26.0%, p<0.001). Moreover 25.0% of women and 17.3 % of men are unsatisfied with their own body image. The smoking habits are less frequent than in general population (19.8 vs 28.0%), however the proportions of those drinking alcohol at least monthly are similar (53.8 vs 54.5%) [2]. Only 9.0% declare the use of performance-enhancing substances. Five people (2.5%) were ‘at-risk for exercise dependence’ and 21.4% were ‘physiologically dependent’ (i.e. evidence of tolerance or withdrawal), which is less than in other studies [3]. Unsurprisingly, dependent subjects spent more time (3 or more days/week) in exercising (79.5 vs 59.0%, p<0.05) than ‘non-dependents’, but the prevalences of other unhealthy behaviours or body image disorders are similar, so it could be a dependence related to the exercise ‘as an end in itself’ and not a consequence f.e. of eating disorders). Conclusion. The needs assessment is an essential action in health promoting sports clubs. References 1. Hausenblas HA & Symons Downs D. Exercise Dependence Scale-21 Manual. 2002. 2. Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Studio Passi. http://www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/ , accessed on June 22, 2014 3. Lejoyeux M, Avril M, Richoux C, Embouazza H, Nivoli F. Prevalence of exercise dependence and other behavioral addictions among clients of a Parisian fitness room Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2008; 49: 353–358.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/41430
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