Neuroepithelial tumors represent a heterogeneous class of human tumors including benignant and malignant tumors. The incidence of central nervous system neoplasms ranges from 3.8 to 5.1 cases per 100,000 in the population. Among malignant neuroepithelial tumors, with regard to PPAR ligands, the most extensively studied were tumors of astrocytic origin and neuroblastoma. PPARs are expressed in developing and adult neuroepithelial cells, even if with different localization and relative abundance. The majority of malignant neuroepithelial tumors have poor prognosis and do not respond to conventional therapeutic protocols, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Natural and synthetic PPAR ligands may represent a starting point for the formulation of new therapeutic approaches to be used as coadjuvants to the standard therapeutic protocols. This review will focus on the major studies dealing with PPAR expression in gliomas and neuroblastoma and the therapeutic implications of using PPAR agonists for the treatment of these neoplasms
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