The prostate is the most frequent site of cancer in men aged 68 years and older. Although prostate cancer is frequently a slow-progressing cancer, the increase in lifespan is posing new challenges in order to avoid prostate cancer-associated mortality. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that the westernised lifestyle and diet may fuel prostate cancer incidence and mortality, and the associated current pandemic of obesity is becoming one of the principal risk factors for age-related chronic diseases. Obesity and ageing seem to contribute independently to deregulating adipose tissue homoeostasis and in turn systemic metabolism. Nowadays, adipose tissue is recognised as an active and complex endocrine and immunological organ able to control the homoeostasis of different distant organs through the release of a variety of factors, collectively termed adipokines. These factors are master regulators of energy balance and immune response and may account for some of the most frequent obesity- and age-related health problems, including cancer. The dissection of mechanisms leading to altered metabolic control by adipose tissue will eventually indicate a new preventive strategy for prostate cancer.
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