"Introduction. The management of "grey zone" elevated Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is uncertain. After prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis may induce PSA increase. PSA reduction, after medical therapy, might identify those patients in whom biopsy can be avoided. The aim of this study was to determine if antibiotic and anti-inflammatory allow avoiding prostate biopsies in patients showing PSA decrease or normalization after medical therapy. Materials and Methods. Between January 2009 and May 2011, a total of 31 men with total PSA between 4 and 10 ng\/ml were enrolled in this study. Patients with pathological digital rectal examination and clinical symptoms of prostatitis or lower urinary tract infection were excluded from the study. Total PSA, free PSA and free\/total PSA were evaluated for all of them. Patients received 1000 mg ciprofloxacin daily for 15 days in combination with 100 mg ketoprofen administered rectally. PSA determinations were repeated two weeks after treatment. SPSS for Windows (version 10.0.7) computer package was used for statistical analysis of the data; a p value <0.05 was considered as level of statistical significance. Results. 19 patients (61%) showed a reduction of PSA level after therapy. Initial total PSA and free-PSA levels were 7.41 and 1.24 ng\/ml, respectively. After medical therapy total and free PSA decreased to 5.72 and 1.19 ng\/ml. Free\/total PSA changed from 15.2% to 14.3%. PSA reached a normal range value in 5 patients (16%), while in 26 patients it was persistently >4 ng\/ml, it decreased in 14 patients (45%), and increased in 12 (39%). Patients with PSA up to 4 ng\/ml reported a prostatic cancer in 28.5% and 41.6% of cases if PSA was respectively decreased or increased from the initial value. Conclusions. A combination of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy seems to be a useful way to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with PSA range from 4 to 10 ng\/ml.. . "
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