In thermographic non-destructive evaluation (TNDE), the optimal thermal stimulus to be provided on precious coatings applied on ancient walls confined in indoor environments is a complex problem to solve particularly when low temperatures characterize the room where they were built. In fact, thermal stresses are always the concern of any restorer who is interested in determining both the positions and sizes of superficial and subsuperficial defects. In scientific literature, the use of lamps appears to be dominant, but when large surfaces must be inspected in situ, many problems could arise, such as environmental reflections, emissivity variations, and non-uniform heating, which cause false alarms in defect detections. In this study, the heating phase was carried out by using a wooden tunnel and an air heater. The main physical and geometrical characteristics of these two objects were optimized in order to stimulate the external coating (called “finishing layer” in this study) as homogeneously as possible. In fact, taking into account the very low temperature of the room which contains the inspected aedicule, the energy deposition (heating phase) is enhanced and the energy dispersion (cooling phase) is reduced (thanks to the tunnel) at the same time. This improves the heat transfer phenomenon along the z axis (i.e., the thickness of the wall). The detection of the defects was performed via higher-order statistics thermography (HOST) technique, which processes the thermal images resulting from the heating and cooling phases. Bearing in mind the low emissivity value of the canary grass (i.e., the finishing layer), the use of heating sources in front of it must be minimized; otherwise, spurious reflections can be recorded and then processed. In particular, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach implemented via Comsol Multiphysics® computer program was used to validate the experimental setup. This was applied to a couple of cases in the Baiocco's room subjected to restrictions of the Superintendence for Historical, Architectural, and Environmental Heritage of the Abruzzo region (Italy) owing to its high artistic importance. The exact position of each defect was modelled after a combined visual-acoustical-thermal inspection. An expert restorer helped us in this task. This study is important because, to the best of our knowledge, the problem discussed above has not been solved yet by the scientific community involved in the field of cultural heritage. The results are first thoroughly discussed and second experimentally validated using a combination between thermocouples and ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique, while advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method are highlighted in view of a future perspective of the present work.
|Titolo:||Combined experimental and computational approach for defect detection in precious walls built in indoor environments|
SFARRA, STEFANO (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|