Despite Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence being projected to increase worldwide, the drugs currently on the market can only mitigate symptoms. Considering the failures of the classical paradigm "one target-one drug-one disease" in delivering effective medications for AD, polypharmacology appears to be a most viable therapeutic strategy. Polypharmacology can involve combinations of multiple drugs and/or single chemical entities modulating multiple targets. Taking inspiration from an ongoing clinical trial, this work aims to convert a promising cromolyn-ibuprofen drug combination into single-molecule "codrugs." Such codrugs should be able to similarly modulate neuroinflammatory and amyloid pathways, while showing peculiar pros and cons. By exploiting a linking strategy, we designed and synthesized a small set of cromolyn-ibuprofen conjugates (4-6). Preliminary plasma stability and neurotoxicity assays allowed us to select diamide 5 and ethanolamide 6 as promising compounds for further studies. We investigated their immunomodulatory profile in immortalized microglia cells, in vitro anti-aggregating activity towards Aβ42-amyloid self-aggregation, and their cellular neuroprotective effect against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity. The fact that 6 effectively reduced Aβ-induced neuronal death, prompted its investigation into an in vivo model. Notably, 6 was demonstrated to significantly increase the longevity of Aβ42-expressing Drosophila and to improve fly locomotor performance.

From Combinations to Single-Molecule Polypharmacology-Cromolyn-Ibuprofen Conjugates for Alzheimer's Disease

Grifoni, Daniela
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2021

Abstract

Despite Alzheimer's disease (AD) incidence being projected to increase worldwide, the drugs currently on the market can only mitigate symptoms. Considering the failures of the classical paradigm "one target-one drug-one disease" in delivering effective medications for AD, polypharmacology appears to be a most viable therapeutic strategy. Polypharmacology can involve combinations of multiple drugs and/or single chemical entities modulating multiple targets. Taking inspiration from an ongoing clinical trial, this work aims to convert a promising cromolyn-ibuprofen drug combination into single-molecule "codrugs." Such codrugs should be able to similarly modulate neuroinflammatory and amyloid pathways, while showing peculiar pros and cons. By exploiting a linking strategy, we designed and synthesized a small set of cromolyn-ibuprofen conjugates (4-6). Preliminary plasma stability and neurotoxicity assays allowed us to select diamide 5 and ethanolamide 6 as promising compounds for further studies. We investigated their immunomodulatory profile in immortalized microglia cells, in vitro anti-aggregating activity towards Aβ42-amyloid self-aggregation, and their cellular neuroprotective effect against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity. The fact that 6 effectively reduced Aβ-induced neuronal death, prompted its investigation into an in vivo model. Notably, 6 was demonstrated to significantly increase the longevity of Aβ42-expressing Drosophila and to improve fly locomotor performance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/160201
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