Pediatric neuroblastomas (NBs) are heterogeneous, aggressive, therapy-resistant embryonal tumours that originate from cells of neural crest (NC) origin and in particular neuroblasts committed to the sympathoadrenal progenitor cell lineage. Therapeutic resistance, post-therapeutic relapse and subsequent metastatic NB progression are driven primarily by cancer stem cell (CSC)-like subpopulations, which through their self-renewing capacity, intermittent and slow cell cycles, drug-resistant and reversibly adaptive plastic phenotypes, represent the most important obstacle to improving therapeutic outcomes in unfavourable NBs. In this review, dedicated to NB CSCs and the prospects for their therapeutic eradication, we initiate with brief descriptions of the unique transient vertebrate embryonic NC structure and salient molecular protagonists involved NC induction, specification, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and migratory behaviour, in order to familiarise the reader with the embryonic cellular and molecular origins and background to NB. We follow this by introducing NB and the potential NC-derived stem/progenitor cell origins of NBs, before providing a comprehensive review of the salient molecules, signalling pathways, mechanisms, tumour microenvironmental and therapeutic conditions involved in promoting, selecting and maintaining NB CSC subpopulations, and that underpin their therapy-resistant, self-renewing metastatic behaviour. Finally, we review potential therapeutic strategies and future prospects for targeting and eradication of these bastions of NB therapeutic resistance, post-therapeutic relapse and metastatic progression.

Mechanisms involved in selecting and maintaining neuroblastoma cancer stem cell populations, and perspectives for therapeutic targeting

Farina A. R.;Cappabianca L. A.;Zelli V.;Mackay A. R.
2021

Abstract

Pediatric neuroblastomas (NBs) are heterogeneous, aggressive, therapy-resistant embryonal tumours that originate from cells of neural crest (NC) origin and in particular neuroblasts committed to the sympathoadrenal progenitor cell lineage. Therapeutic resistance, post-therapeutic relapse and subsequent metastatic NB progression are driven primarily by cancer stem cell (CSC)-like subpopulations, which through their self-renewing capacity, intermittent and slow cell cycles, drug-resistant and reversibly adaptive plastic phenotypes, represent the most important obstacle to improving therapeutic outcomes in unfavourable NBs. In this review, dedicated to NB CSCs and the prospects for their therapeutic eradication, we initiate with brief descriptions of the unique transient vertebrate embryonic NC structure and salient molecular protagonists involved NC induction, specification, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and migratory behaviour, in order to familiarise the reader with the embryonic cellular and molecular origins and background to NB. We follow this by introducing NB and the potential NC-derived stem/progenitor cell origins of NBs, before providing a comprehensive review of the salient molecules, signalling pathways, mechanisms, tumour microenvironmental and therapeutic conditions involved in promoting, selecting and maintaining NB CSC subpopulations, and that underpin their therapy-resistant, self-renewing metastatic behaviour. Finally, we review potential therapeutic strategies and future prospects for targeting and eradication of these bastions of NB therapeutic resistance, post-therapeutic relapse and metastatic progression.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/169431
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