Appropriate and standardized techniques for the extraction of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity from plants are required. In this work, a comparison of different conventional and unconventional extraction techniques (maceration-M, Soxhlet-S, ultrasound assisted extraction-UAE, and rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction-RSLDE) was investigated. Bioactive compounds were extracted from Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme), Cannabis sativa L. (industrial hemp) and Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) and chemically characterized for their volatile fraction and polyphenolic content by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV). Linalool (48.19%, RSLDE) and carvacrol (21.30%, M) for thyme, caryophyllene (54.78%, S) and humulene (14.13%, S) for hemp, and linalool (84.16%, RSLDE) for coriander seeds were the main compounds among terpenes, while thyme was the richest source of polyphenols with rosmarinic acid (51.7 mg/g dry extract-S), apigenin (7.6 mg/g dry extract-S), and luteolin (4.1 mg/g dry extract-UAE) being the most abundant. In order to shed light on their potential as natural food preservatives, the biological activity of the extracts was assessed in terms of antioxidant activity (2,20-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid-ABTS′+, ferric reducing antioxidant power-FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-DPPH′assays) and phenolic content (Folin-Ciocâlteu method). For thyme, Soxhlet extracts showed best performances in FRAP and ABTS′+ assays (74 mg TE/g dry extract and 134 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively), while Soxhlet and RSLDE extracts recorded similar activity in DPPH′ (107-109 mg TE/g dry extract). For hemp and coriander, indeed, RSLDE extracts accounted for higher antioxidant activity as evidenced by FRAP (80 mg TE/g dry extract and 18 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively) and ABTS′+ (557 mg TE/g dry extract and 48 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively) assays. With respect to DPPH′, the best results were observed for UAE extracts (45 mg TE/g dry extract and 220 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively). Our findings suggest that all the investigated techniques are valid extraction methods to retain bioactive compounds and preserve their activity for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Among them, the innovative RSLDE stands out for the slightly higher antioxidant performances of the extracts, coupled with the facility of use and standardization of the extraction process.

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of thyme, hemp and coriander extracts: A comparison study of maceration, soxhlet, UAE and RSLDE techniques

Pellegrini M.;
2020

Abstract

Appropriate and standardized techniques for the extraction of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity from plants are required. In this work, a comparison of different conventional and unconventional extraction techniques (maceration-M, Soxhlet-S, ultrasound assisted extraction-UAE, and rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction-RSLDE) was investigated. Bioactive compounds were extracted from Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme), Cannabis sativa L. (industrial hemp) and Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) and chemically characterized for their volatile fraction and polyphenolic content by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV). Linalool (48.19%, RSLDE) and carvacrol (21.30%, M) for thyme, caryophyllene (54.78%, S) and humulene (14.13%, S) for hemp, and linalool (84.16%, RSLDE) for coriander seeds were the main compounds among terpenes, while thyme was the richest source of polyphenols with rosmarinic acid (51.7 mg/g dry extract-S), apigenin (7.6 mg/g dry extract-S), and luteolin (4.1 mg/g dry extract-UAE) being the most abundant. In order to shed light on their potential as natural food preservatives, the biological activity of the extracts was assessed in terms of antioxidant activity (2,20-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid-ABTS′+, ferric reducing antioxidant power-FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-DPPH′assays) and phenolic content (Folin-Ciocâlteu method). For thyme, Soxhlet extracts showed best performances in FRAP and ABTS′+ assays (74 mg TE/g dry extract and 134 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively), while Soxhlet and RSLDE extracts recorded similar activity in DPPH′ (107-109 mg TE/g dry extract). For hemp and coriander, indeed, RSLDE extracts accounted for higher antioxidant activity as evidenced by FRAP (80 mg TE/g dry extract and 18 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively) and ABTS′+ (557 mg TE/g dry extract and 48 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively) assays. With respect to DPPH′, the best results were observed for UAE extracts (45 mg TE/g dry extract and 220 mg TE/g dry extract, respectively). Our findings suggest that all the investigated techniques are valid extraction methods to retain bioactive compounds and preserve their activity for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Among them, the innovative RSLDE stands out for the slightly higher antioxidant performances of the extracts, coupled with the facility of use and standardization of the extraction process.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11697/170734
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