Approximately 50 percent of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), with the highest prevalence rates in developing countries. The current guidelines suggest the use of triple therapy as first choice treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, although the eradication failure rate is more than 30 percent. Current interest in probiotics as therapeutic agents against Helicobacter pylori is stimulated by the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics, thus the interest for alternative therapies is a real actual topic. Available data in children indicate that probiotics seem to be efficacious for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects, and might be of help for the prevention of Helicobacter pylori complications by decreasing Helicobacter pylori density and gastritis, and for the prevention of Helicobacter pylori colonization or re-infection by inhibiting adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. There is no clear evidence that probiotics may increase the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate.
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