The current ongoing rise in environmental pollution is leading research efforts toward the adoption of propulsion systems powered by gaseous fuels like hydrogen, methane, e-fuels, etc. Although gaseous fuels have been used in several types of propulsion systems, there are still many aspects that can be improved and require further study. For this reason, we considered it important to provide a review of the latest research topics, with a particular focus on the injection process. In advanced engine systems, fuel supply is achieved via enhanced direct injection into the combustion chamber. The latter involves the presence of under-expanded jets. Under-expanded jets are a particular kind of compressible flow. For this reason, the review initially provides a brief physical explanation of them. Next, experimental and numerical CFD investigation techniques are discussed. The last section of this manuscript presents an analysis of the jet’s structure. The injection parameters commonly used are examined; next, the characteristics of the near-nozzle field are reviewed and finally, the far-field turbulent mixing, which strongly affects the air–fuel mixture formation process, is discussed.
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