Paramagnetic nitroxides have been proposed as probes in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and in clinical diagnosis. However, nitroxides are rapidly reduced in vivo to hydroxylamines, diamagnetic EPR-inactive species. Reduction occurs in blood via soluble agents such as ascorbic acid, as well as in the cells via enzymatic and non-enzymatic endocellular systems. To prevent the reduction, a water soluble nitroxide, i.e., potassium peroxylamine disulfonate, is entrapped in reverse phase evaporation vesicles. The loaded liposomes have a high entrapment capacity, and vesicles with the encapsulated agent are stable for days, even at room temperature. The vesicles in vitro can almost completely prevent the reduction of the entrapped nitroxide by ascorbic acid. In blood of a rat, enriched with a homogenate of rat liver proteins, the vesicles are able to greatly prolong the life time of the nitroxide. In particular, the encapsulated nitroxide has a half-life of more than one hour, compared to two minutes for free nitroxide under the same conditions. Due to these protective effects, the lipid vesicles might be useful as a delivery system for paramagnetic agents.

An EPR study of lipid vesicles as paramagnetic agent vectors

DI GIULIO, Antonio;CARNICELLI, VERONICA;COLACICCHI, SILVIA;
1997

Abstract

Paramagnetic nitroxides have been proposed as probes in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and in clinical diagnosis. However, nitroxides are rapidly reduced in vivo to hydroxylamines, diamagnetic EPR-inactive species. Reduction occurs in blood via soluble agents such as ascorbic acid, as well as in the cells via enzymatic and non-enzymatic endocellular systems. To prevent the reduction, a water soluble nitroxide, i.e., potassium peroxylamine disulfonate, is entrapped in reverse phase evaporation vesicles. The loaded liposomes have a high entrapment capacity, and vesicles with the encapsulated agent are stable for days, even at room temperature. The vesicles in vitro can almost completely prevent the reduction of the entrapped nitroxide by ascorbic acid. In blood of a rat, enriched with a homogenate of rat liver proteins, the vesicles are able to greatly prolong the life time of the nitroxide. In particular, the encapsulated nitroxide has a half-life of more than one hour, compared to two minutes for free nitroxide under the same conditions. Due to these protective effects, the lipid vesicles might be useful as a delivery system for paramagnetic agents.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11697/2334
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